CAS #: 81496-82-4
Molecular formula: C15H24O5
Molucular weight: 284.3
White crystalline powder
artemisinin, isolated from Chinese-Vietnamese plant Artemisia annua L., locally called "qing hao", is a new class anti-malarial drugs. It is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste; practically insoluble in water, soluble in chloroform, acetone, and alcohols. Its chemical designation is (3R,5aS,6R,8aS,9R,12S,12aR)- octahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12-epoxy- 12H-pyrano[4.3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10(3H)-one. Malaria is one of leading re-emerging infectious disease due to murative malarial parasite developed resistance to chloroquine. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is an alternative can be used in the treatment of the disease resistant to chloroquine, but resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been reported also in some areas. Artemisinin is an alternative used in areas where the disease has become highly resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Dihydroartemisinin, its methyl ether (artemether), its ehyl ether (its (arteether) and its hemisuccinate ester (artesunate) are known as more effective than its parent material - artemisinin. Artemisinin is a peroxide-bridged sesquiterpene lactone compound which has no N atom, unlike quinine class anti-malarial drugs. The characteristic peroxide lactone structure is indispensable for anti-malarial activity. The term of artemotil refers to the pure beta-epimer of arteether.
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