Common name: glyphosate
IUPAC name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine
Chemical Abstracts name:
Cas rn: [1071-83-6]
Composition: Tech. is 95% pure. Zwitterion structure. Mol. wt.: 169.1; M.f.: C3H8NO5P; Form: Colourless crystals. M.p.: 189.5 °C; B.p.: Decomp. >200 °C. V.p.: 1.31x10-2 mPa (25 °C). KOW: logP <-3.2 (pH 2-5, 20 °C), (OECD 107; EEC A8). Henry: <2.1x10-7 Pa m3 mol-1 S.g./density: 1.705 (20 °C). Solubility: In water 11.6 g/l (25 ºC). Insoluble in common organic solvents, e.g. acetone, ethanol and xylene. The alkali-metal and amine salts are readily soluble in water. Stability: Glyphosate and all its salts are non-volatile, do not photochemically degrade and are stable in air. Glyphosate is stable to hydrolysis at pH 3, 6 and 9 (5-35 °C). F.p.: Not flammable.
Biochemistry: Inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme of the aromatic acid biosynthetic pathway. This prevents synthesis of essential aromatic amino acids needed for protein biosynthesis.
Mode of action: Non-selective systemic herbicide, absorbed by the foliage, with rapid translocation throughout the plant. Inactivated on contact with soil.
Uses: Control of annual and perennial grasses and broad-leaved weeds, pre-harvest, post-planting/pre-emergence and in stubble, in cereals, peas, beans, oilseed rape, flax and mustard, at c. 1.5-2 kg/ha; as a directed spray in vines and olives, at c. 4.3 kg/ha; in orchards, pasture, forestry and industrial weed control, at c. 4.3 kg/ha. As an aquatic herbicide, at c. 2 kg/ha.
Formulation types: SG; SL.
Compatibility: Mixing with other herbicides may reduce the activity of glyphosate.
Oral: Acute oral LD50 for rats 5600, mice 11 300, goats 3530 mg/kg.
Skin and eye: Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >5000 mg/kg. Eye irritant; non-irritating to skin (rabbits).
Inhalation: LC50 (4 h) for rats >4.98 mg/l air.
NOEL: In 2 y feeding trials, no ill-effects were observed in rats receiving 410 mg/kg diet daily (average) and, in 1 y feeding trials, no ill-effects were observed in dogs receiving 500 mg/kg daily (highest dose treated).
ADI: 0.3 mg/kg b.w.
Water GV: Unnecessary to recommend a guideline value because not hazardous to health at concentrations normally found in drinking water.
Other: Not mutagenic, not carcinogenic, not teratogenic, not neurotoxic. No adverse effects on reproduction.
Toxicity class: WHO (a.i.) III (Table 5); EPA (formulation) III
EC hazard: (Xi; R41)
Birds: Acute oral LD50 for bobwhite quail >3851 mg/kg. Dietary LC50 (8 d) for quail and ducks >4640 mg/kg diet.
Fish: LC50 (96 h) for trout 86, bluegill sunfish 120, harlequin fish 168, sheepshead minnow >1000 mg/l.
Daphnia: LC50 (48 h) 780 mg/l.
Algae: EC50 (72 h) for Selenastrum capricornutum 485 mg/l, (7 d) 13.8 mg/l; (96 h) for Skeletonema costatum 1.2 mg/l, (7 d) 0.64 mg/l; (7 d) for Navicula pelliculosa 42, Anabaena flos-aquae 15 mg/l.
Other aquatic spp.: LC50 (96 h) for mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) >1000, grass shrimp 281, fiddler crab 934 mg/l. EC50 (96 h) for sea urchin >1000 mg/l; (14 d) for Lemna gibba 25.5 mg/l. EC50 (48 h) for Litoria moorei tadpole 111 mg/l.
Bees: LD50 (contact and oral ) >100 ug/bee.
Animals: In mammals, following oral administration, glyphosate is very rapidly excreted unchanged and does not bioaccumulate.
Plants: Slowly metabolised to aminomethylphosphonic acid ([1066-51-9]), which is the major plant metabolite.
Soil/Environment: In soil (field), DT50 3-174 d, depending on edaphic and climatic conditions. In water, DT50 varies from a few to 91 d. Photodegradation in water occurs under natural conditions, DT50<=28 d; no substantial photodegradation in soil was recorded over 31 d. In a lab. whole system with water and sediment, DT50<=14 d (aerobic), 14-22 d (anaerobic). The major metabolite in soil and water is aminomethylphosphonic acid.
Contact Name: Kevin Xu
Company Name: Shanghai Skyblue Chemical Co., Ltd.
Street Address: Rm 15A02, Changhang
Mansion, No.800, Zhangyang Road,
Pudong, Shanghai, 200122, China
Member name: skybluechem
Member Since: 17 June 2010
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Product Category: Herbicide services