Linum usitatissimum L.
Plant part used：
Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside (SDG) (Flax Lignans)
10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside (SDG) or Flax Lignans
Estrogenic and Antioxidant Activities
Synonyms--- Linseed, Common Flaxseed
Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG)
Molecular Formula: C32H46O16
Mol. Wt.: 686.71
Flax (Linum usitatissimum, also known as common flax or linseed) is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Flax is an erect annual plant growing to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm diameter, with five petals; they can also be bright red. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long.
Flax is grown both for its seeds and for its fibers. Flax seeds contain high levels of lignans and Omega-3 fatty acids. Lignans may benefit the heart, possess anti-cancer properties and studies found reduced growth in specific types of tumors. Initial studies suggest that flaxseed taken in the diet may benefit individuals with certain types of breast and prostate cancers.
The lignans (primarily in form of SDG) are a group of chemical compounds found in plants, particularly in flax seed. Lignans are one of the major classes of phytoestrogens, which are estrogen-like chemicals and also act as antioxidants. In the nature, there are three classes of phytoestrogens, the other two classes of phytoestrogens are the isoflavones and coumestans( Coumestrol). Plant lignans are polyphenolic substances derived from phenylalanine via dimerization of substituted cinnamic alcohols. Mammalian lignans are lignans derived from plant lignans. For example, following ingestion, SDG is converted to the aglycone secoisolariciresinol, which is then metabolized to the mammalian lignans: enterolactone(EL) and enterodiol(ED). Most of the effects of oral SDG are mediated by enterolactone(EL) and enterodiol(ED).
Secoisolariciresinol diglycoside, or SDG, is a plant lignan, presented in flax, sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin seeds, but primarily found in flaxseed (linseed). SDG is classified as a phytoestrogen since it is a plant-derived, nonsteroid compound that possesses estrogen-like activity. SDG has weak estrogenic activity. The level of SDG in flaxseed typically varies between 0.6% and 1.8%.
The metabolized derivatives of SDG: aglycone of SDG (Aglycone secoisolariciresinol) is also known as 2, 3-bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl) butane-1, 4-diol. And its further metabolized derivatives: Enterolactone(EL) is also known as trans-2, 3-bis [(3-hydroxylphenyl) methyl]-butyrolactone; Enterodiol (ED) is also known as 2, 3-bis(3-hydroxybenzyl)butane-1, 4-diol tetratms.
The Flaxseed Extract used in dietary supplements is derived from the seeds (de-fatted) of the plant Linum usitatissimum L.
•Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities
•Reducing symptoms of menopause
•Benefit Breast health
•Modifying blood and cholesterol levels.
•Benefit Prostate health
•Benefit Bone health
•Benefit Heart health
•Treat Hair loss
•Potential anticancer (anticarcinogenic) activities
Metabolism and mechanism of lignans: Lignans are natural compounds with two or three molecules of benzene propyl′s combination by various modalities. Being phytoestrogen, flax lignans can bind to estrogen receptors and interfere hormone metabolism as soya isoflavones and red clover isoflavones. The main ingredient of flax lignans is secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (so called SDG), SDG is the precursor of mammal lignans because it is converted into enterolactone (EL) and enterodiol (ED) (they are mammal lignans) after ingestion because of hydrolyzed and participation of enzyme as well as colonic bacteria. Dietary flaxseed obviously increases EL and ED concentrations in plasma up to 200 and 48 times respectively. The metabolism and mechanism is as follows:
MECHANISM OF ACTION: SDG, as well as its mammalian lignan metabolites, enterolactone (EL) and enterodiol (ED), have weak estrogenic activity as measured in in vivo and in vitro assays. SDG, EL and ED have a number of antioxidant activities, including inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxy radicals. SDG also has anti-platelet-activation factor (PAF) activity. PAF can induce the release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils. SDG, via its metabolite EL, has been found to inhibit estrogen synthase (aromatase) and to stimulate the synthesis of gender hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Both of these actions could account for the possible anti-estrogen activity of SDG.
There is evidence in in vitro and animal research that SDG may have some ability to reduce cholesterol levels and protect against atherosclerosis; it may also have some anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The possible anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic and antidiabetic activities of SDG are thought to be due, in large part, to the antioxidant activities of its metabolites EL and ED.
PHARMACOKINETICS: SDG, following ingestion, is transported to the large intestine, where it is hydrolyzed by bacteria to the aglycone secoisolariciresinol. Secoisolariciresinol, in turn, is metabolized by bacteria in the large intestine to the mammalian lignans EL and ED. EL and ED are absorbed from the large intestine. Little is known about the distribution of EL and ED to the various tissues of the body. It is known that ED and EL undergo conjugation in the liver with glucuronate and sulfate. The glucuronate and sulfate conjugates of ED and EL are excreted in the urine and in the bile.
There appears to be considerable individual variation in the absorption and metabolism of the SDG metabolites ED and EL.
Flaxseed Extract is safe. And there is no report s of overdosage of SDG.
SDG is contraindicated in those who are hypersensitive to any component of an SDG-containing product.
Pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid the use of SDG supplementation.
Women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors should discuss the advisability of the use of SDG-containing products with their physicians before deciding to use them.
SDG nutritional supplements are currently being developed, and there are no dosage recommendations at present.
SDG is present in flaxseed at levels of 0.6% to 1.8% and in much smaller amounts in flaxseed oil.
Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s SDG Features and Benefits:
Flaxseed Hull Extract (SDG) is one of GNI's most competitive products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds (de-fatted).
• Produced with pure water only
• High purity: over 80%
• NO solvent - residual free
• Yellow-brown to yellow in appearance
• High solubility in water
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside (SDG) or Flax Lignans as SDG
Contact Name: Kevin Hou
Company Name: Ningbo United Plant Technology Co.ltd
Street Address: 58#, 6th Dagang Rd,
Beilun, Ningbo, China 315801
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Member Since: 27 July 2010
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