Tetanus Antitoxin (TAT)
Tetanus antitoxin is used for prophylaxis
and therapy of tetanus. For those started with tetanus symptoms or in suspicion, tetanus antitoxin should be given immediately together with surgical and other clinical administration at the same time.
For those openly wounded, especially those wounded deeply and contaminated seriously, and in danger of being infected with tetanus, prophylactic injection of tetanus antitoxin should be given at once. Patients who have had previous injection of tetanus toxoid should be boosted with one more injection of tetanus toxoid (but not tetanus antitoxin). To those who haven? ? T had previous tetanus toxoid injection or without a clear history of immunization, both antitoxin and toxoid should be given for prophylaxis and permanent immunocompetence.
The right site for subcutaneous injection of the tetanus antitoxin is around the deltoid muscle of the upper arm. If tetanus toxoid is to be given at the same time, separate sites are desirable. The right site for intramuscular injection is the centre area of the deltoid muscle or the lateral upper part of the gluteus maximum.
Intravenous route should not be used until no untoward reaction occurs after intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Intravenous injection should be done slowly enough: Not more than l ml/min at the beginning and don? ? T exceed 4 ml/min afterward.
The total volume for a single dose should be not more than 40ml for adults and not more than 0.8ml/kg body weight for children. Tetanus antitoxin may be diluted with dextrose solution or physiological saline for intravenous drip. Before intravenous injection, put the ampoule into tepid water when it is approaching body temperature. The drip must be stopped at once if any untoward reaction occurs.
Dosage and Administration:
1. Prophylactic use: 1 500-30001. U. Both for adults and children injection should be repeated after six days when contamination still persists. In those cases that have been immunized previously with tetanus toxoid, it is advisable to give a booster dose of tetanus toxoid only. For prophylactic use the antitoxin may be given by subcutaneous or intramuscular route.
2. Therapeutic use: Tetanus antitoxin should be administered as early as possible. A case usually requires about 100, 000-200, 000lU on average.
A. Usually, 50, 000I. U. Of antitoxin should be given on the first and the following day of illness, and 10, 000lU is repeated on the third, fourth and eighth day respectively.
B. The neonates with tetanus should receive 20, 000 -1 00, 000lU antitoxin intramuscular or intravenous injection within 24 hours of illness either single or separate dose.
1. Type I hypersensitivity reaction: Anaphylaxis shock may suddenly occur during or after the injection of equine antitoxin with symptoms of gloominess or dysphoria, pale or flush face, chest depression or asthma, cold sweat, nausea or abdominal pain, weak and rapid pulses, hypotension or collapse in severe case. The patient will die soon if without emergent treatment. Allergic shock will be relieved by adrenaline injection for those slight reactions; But for those who serious they should use transfusion and oxygen therapy, keeping blood pressure by pressor agent and carrying out rescue by antiallergic drugs and adrenal cortex hormone.
2. Serum sickness (Type lll hypersensitivity reaction) may occur, frequently 7 to 10 days after the injection. The main symptoms are urticaria, high fever, lymphadenopathy, local swelling and occasional albuminuria, vomiting, joint pain as well as erythema, itch and edema at the vaccination site. Regarding to heterophathy of serum disease, it can be recovered by using calcium agent or antihistaminic for several days.
Storage and Package:
Store between 2 degree to 8 degree. Do not Freeze. Protect from light.
Contact Name: Leo.ben
Company Name: Sichuan Kelun Bio-tech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
Tel: 86-28-85597761 or 86-28-85597763
Street Address: No. 1308 Yishu
Huaxiang, No. 33 Of Ximian Qiao
Street, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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