Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74.
steel-gray metal under standard conditions when uncombined, tungsten is found naturally on Earth only combined in chemical compounds. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite. The free element is remarkable for its robust physical properties, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after carbon. Also remarkable is its very high density of 19.3 times that of water. This density is slightly more than that of uranium and 71% more than that of lead. Tungsten with minor amounts of impurities is often brittle and hard, making it difficult to work. However, very pure tungsten is more ductile, and can be cut with a hacksaw.
The unalloyed elemental form is used mainly in electrical applications. Tungsten's many alloys have numerous applications, most notably in incandescent light bulb filaments, X-ray tubes (as both the filament and target), and superalloys. Tungsten's hardness and high density give it military applications in penetrating projectiles. Tungsten compounds are most often used industrially as catalysts.
Tungsten is the only metal from the third transition series that is known to occur in biomolecules, and is the heaviest element known to be used by living organisms.
Because it retains its strength at high temperatures and has a high melting point, elemental tungsten is used in many high-temperature applications,  such as light bulb, cathode-ray tube, and vacuum tube filaments, heating elements, and rocket engine nozzles. Its high melting point also makes tungsten suitable for aerospace and high-temperature uses such as electrical, heating, and welding applications, notably in the gas tungsten arc welding process [also called tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding].
Because of its conductive properties and relative chemical inertia, tungsten is also used in electrodes, and in the emitter tips in electron-beam instruments that use field emission guns, such as electron microscopes. In electronics, tungsten is used as an interconnect material in integrated circuits, between the silicon dioxide dielectric material and the transistors. It is used in metallic films, which replace the wiring used in conventional electronics with a coat of tungsten (or molybdenum) on silicon.
The electronic structure of tungsten makes it one of the main sources for X-ray targets,  and also for shielding from high-energy radiations (such as in the radiopharmaceutical industry for shielding radioactive samples of FDG). Tungsten powder is used as a filler material in plastic composites, which are used as a nontoxic substitute for lead in bullets, shot, and radiation shields. Since this element's thermal expansion is similar to borosilicate glass, it is used for making glass-to-metal seals.
The hardness and density of tungsten are applied in obtaining heavy metal alloys. A good example is high speed steel, which may contain as much as 18% tungsten. Tungsten high melting point makes tungsten a good material for applications like rocket nozzle, for example in the UGM-27 Polaris Submarine-launched ballistic missile. Superalloys containing tungsten, such as Hastelloy and Stellite, are used in turbine blades and wear-resistant parts and coatings.
Applications requiring its high density include heat sinks, weights, counterweights, ballast keels for yachts, tail ballast for commercial aircraft, and as ballast in race cars for NASCAR and Formula One. It is an ideal material to use as a dolly for riveting, where the mass necessary for good results can be achieved in a compact bar. High-density alloys of tungsten with nickel, copper or iron are used in high-quality darts (to allow for a smaller diameter and thus tighter groupings) or for fishing lures (tungsten beads allow the fly to sink rapidly). Some types of strings for musical instruments are wound with tungsten wires.
In armaments, tungsten, usually alloyed with nickel and iron or cobalt to form heavy alloys, is used in kinetic energy penetrators as an alternative to depleted uranium, in applications where uranium's additional pyrophoric properties are not required (for example, in ordinary small arms bullets designed to penetrate body armor). Similarly, tungsten alloys have also been used in cannon shells, grenades and missiles, to create supersonic shrapnel.
Its density, similar to that of gold, allows tungsten to be used in jewelry as an alternative to gold or platinum. Its hardness makes it ideal for rings that will resist scratching, are hypoallergenic, and will not need polishing, which is especially useful in designs with a brushed finish.
Tungsten compounds are used in catalysts, inorganic pigments (e.g. tungsten oxides), and as high-temperature lubricants (tungsten disulfide). Tungsten carbide (WC) is used to make wear-resistant abrasives and cutters and knives for drills, circular saws, milling and turning tools used by the metalworking, woodworking, mining, petroleum and construction industries and accounts for about 60% of current tungsten consumption. Tungsten oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting, while tungsten halogen bulbs are frequently used to light indoor photo shoots, and special negative films exist to take advantage of tungsten's unique disentangling properties. Crystal tungstates are used as scintillation detectors in nuclear physics and nuclear medicine. Other salts that contain tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries.
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